CHAPTER consider implications, examine similarities and differences,

CHAPTER 5 – Writing to reflect

  • Writer is OBSERVER
  • Kinds of documents: Memoir, photo essays, short stories, literacy narratives, reflective essays
  • HOW TO WRITE:
  • Find a conversation and Listen in: Explore ur experience -> Ask questions abt promising subjects -> Conduct an observation
  • Reflect on Your Subject: Examine ur subject ( explore processes, consider implications, examine similarities and differences, trace causes and effects, consider value, identify challenges and difficulties, reflect on ur experience ) -> Collect detail ( compare ur subject with something else, discuss ur ideas) -> Find significance
  • Prepare a draft: Convey your main idea (P137)-> Tell a story ( Setting, character, plot, conflict, climax, resolution, point of view) -> Go into detail -> Choose your point of view (third-person pronouns or first-person pronouns) -> Consider genre and design  (readable font, double –spacing, using illustrations) -> Frame your reflections (Organization, Introduction and Conclusion)
  • Review and Improve ur draft: Ensure that ur main idea is clear -> Examine the presentation of ur observations -> Review dialogue -> Show, don’t tell.

CHAPTER 6 – Writing to inform

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  • Writer is REPORTER.
  • Kinds of documents: Brochures, Websites, Articles, Profiles, Informative essays.

  • HOW TO WRITE:
  • Find a conversation and Listen in: Explore ur interests (Personal interests and hobbies, Academics, Work, Reading) -> Use ur library -> Ask questions abt promising subjects (Importance, Process, History, Limitations, Benefits, Advantages and disadvantages)
  • Gather Information: Create a search plan ->Collect sources ->Evaluate ur sources (Relevance, Evidence, Authority, Timeliness) -> Take notes -> Conduct ur interview
  • Prepare a draft: Present ur main point (P189) -> Develop supporting points and evidence ->Consider genre and design (Illustrations, Charts, graphs and tables) -> Frame ur information (Organization, Introduction and Conclusion)
  • Review and Improve ur Draft: Focus ur discussion -> Ensure clarity -> Review ur use of sources -> Assess ur introduction and conclusion.

CHAPTER 7 – Writing to Analyze

  • Writer is INTERPRETER.
  • Kinds of documents: Web-based articles, News analyses, Multimedia presentations, Literacy Criticism, Analytical essays.
  • HOW TO WRITE:
  • Find a conversation and Listen in: Explore ur surroundings (ur shelves, the daily news, ur leisure activities, ur physical environment ) -> Ask interpretive questions (Elements, Categories, History, Causes and Effects, Relationships, Meaning) -> Search databases
  • Conduct your Analysis: Refine ur question (question open like What caused…instead of When did…) -> Seek a fuller understanding of ur subject (Division, Classification) -> Apply an interpretive framework (Trend analysis, Causal analysis, Data analysis, Text analysis)
  • Prepare a Draft: Make an interpretive claim (p251) -> Explain your interpretation (provide relevant reasons for ur interpretation, support ur reasons with evidence, establish the context) -> Consider genre and design (Figures, Images, Captions) -> Frame your analysis (Intro, Conclusion, Organization)
  • Review and Improve ur Draft: Ensure that ur claim is debatable -> Challenge ur conclusions -> Examine the application of ur interpretive framework -> Assess ur organization.

CHAPTER 8 – Writing to Evaluate

  • Writer is Evaluator
  • Kinds of documents: Products Reviews, Media Reviews, Place Reviews, Progress Reports, Evaluative essays.
  • HOW TO WRITE:
  • Find a conversation and Listen in: Explore ur needs, interests, and concerns (Products, Media, Campus life, Ideas) -> Search the web -> Narrow ur focus by asking questions (Importance, Appropriateness, Effectiveness, Costs/Benefits, Prevailing opinion)
  • Conduct ur evaluation: Define ur criteria -> Identify evidence -> Make ur judgments
  • Prepare a Draft: State ur overall Judgments (P316) -> Present ur evaluation (Explain ur criteria, Supporting ur judgments with evidence, Be fair) -> Frame ur evaluation (Intro, Conclusion, Organization)
  • Review and Improve ur Draft: Review ur criteria -> Reconsider ur evidence -> Ensure that ur judgments are fair and reasonable.

CHAPTER 9 – Writing to Solve the Problems

  • Writer is Problem Solver.
  • Kinds of documents: Correspondence, Professional Articles, Speeches, Proposals, Problem-Solving essays.
  • HOW TO WRITE:
  • Find a conversation and Listen in: Explore difficulties (Communities, Economy, Work, News) -> Ask questions abt promising subjects (Relevance, Definition, Context, Causes and effects) -> Conduct a survey
  • Develop a solution: Define the problem (Situation/effects, Agent/goals/actions/results, Severity and duration, Goals and barriers) -> Consider potential solutions -> Assess the practicality of ur solution
  • Prepare a Draft: Explain the problem -> Propose ur solution(P383) ->Explain ur solution ( Go into detail, Address promising alternative solutions) -> Consider genre and design -> Frame ur essay ( Organization, Intro, Conclusion)
  • Review and Improve a Draft: Reassess ur problem definition -> Review the presentation of ur solution -> Check the feasibility of ur solution -> Consider objections and alternative solutions.

CHAPTER 10 – Writing to Convince and Persuade

  • Writer is advocate.

  • Kinds of documents: Advertisements, Opinion Columns, Letters to the editor, Blogs, Argumentative essays.
  • HOW TO WRITE:
  • Find a conversation and Listen in: Explore disagreements (popular conversations, professional conversations, academic conversations) -> Track online conversations -> Ask question abt promising issues (Values, Definition, Possibilities, Positions, Strengths and weaknesses)
  • Build ur argument: Define ur overall claim -> Develop reasons to accept ur overall claim (Costs, Benefits, Alternatives, choices, trade-offs, Paralels, Personal experience, Historical context, Value and beliefs) -> Choose evidence to support ur reasons -> Identify and consider opposing claims -> Ensure the integrity of ur argument (Fallacies based on distraction-A red herring, Ad hominem attacks, Irrelevant history, Fallacies based on questionable assumptions – sweeping generalizations, straw-man attacks, citing inappropriate authorities, jumping on a bandwagon, Fallacies based on misrepresentation- stacking the deck, base-rate fallacies, questionable analogies, Fallacies based on careless reasoning- Post hoc fallacies, Slippery-slope arguments, Either/or arguments, Non sequiturs, Circular reasoning)
  • Prepare a Draft: Make an argumentative claim(P438) -> Appeal to ur readers (appeals to authority, to emotion, to principles, values and beliefs, to character, to logic) -> Address counterarguments (Concede valid claims, Refute widely held claims, Ignore competing claims) -> Consider genre and design -> Frame ur argument (Organization, Intro, Conclusion)
  • Review and Improve ur Draft: Consider ur overall claim -> Review ur reasons, evidence and appeals -> Examine ur treatment of counterarguments -> Ensure the integrity of ur argument.

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