Essay title: The Republic – Plato
politics is to first examine each theory in depth. Plato is regardedby many experts as the first writer of political philosophy, and Aristotle is recognized as the first political scientist.
These twomen were great thinkers. They each had ideas of how to improve existing societies during their individual lifetimes. It is necessary to look at several areas of each theory to seek the difference in each.
The main focus of Plato is a perfect society. He creates a blueprint for a utopian society, in his book The Republic, out of hisdisdain for the tension of political life (Hacker, 24). This blueprint was a sketch of a society in which the problems he thought were present in his society would be eased (Hacker 24). Plato sought to cure the afflictions of both human society and human personality (Hacker 24). Essentially what Plato wants to achieve is a perfect society.Aristotle, unlike Plato, is not concerned with perfecting society.
He just wants to improve on the existing one. Rather thanproduce a blueprint for the perfect society, Aristotle suggested, in his work, The Politics, that the society itself should reach for the best possible system that could be attained (Hacker 71). Aristotle relied on the deductive approach, while Aristotle is an example of an inductive approach (Hacker 71). Utopia is a solution in abstract, a solution that has no concrete problem (Hacker 76).
There is no solid evidence that all societies are in need of such drastic reformation as Plato suggests (Hacker 76). Aristotle discovers that the best possible has already been obtained (Hacker 76). All that can be done is to try to improve on the existing one.Plato's utopia consists of three distinct, non-hereditary class systems (Hacker 32). The Guardians consist of non rulingGuardians and ruling Guardians. The non-rulers are a higher level of civil servants and the ruling is the society's policy makers (Hacker 32).
Auxilaries are soldiers and minor civil servants (Hacker 32). Finally the Workers, are composed of farmers and artisans, most commonly unskilled laborers (Hacker 32). The Guardians are to be wise and good rulers. It is important that the rulers who emerge must be a class of craftsmen who are public-spirited in temperament and skilled in the arts of government areas (Hacker 33). The guardians are to be placed in a position in which they are absolute rulers.
They are supposed to be the select few who know what is best for society (Hacker 33). Aristotle disagrees with the idea of one class holding discontinuing political power (Hacker 85). The failure to allow circulation between classes excludes those men who may be ambitious, and wise, but are not in the right class of society to hold any typeof political power (Hacker 85). Aristotle looks upon this ruling class system as an ill-conceived political structure (Hacker 86).
He quotes "It is a further objection that he deprives his Guardians even of happiness, maintaining that happiness of the whole state which should