Nikia LyonsPSY 1505MWF- 2:00pm4/5/07The Mind at Night By: Andrea Rock The book call "The Mind at Night" by Andrea Rock is about how and why we as humans dream.
The author talks about in her book the different theories and experiments done over time to see what dreaming is and does the dreams interpret things.It's impossible for scientists to agree on the real definition of dreaming. Some say that its the creation of hallucinatory narratives complete with characters and a discernable plotline that occurs primarily during the period of rest known as rapid eye movement (REM) sleep.This is a stage where you are close to or approaching the waking stage.The sleeper's eyes move back and forth behind closed eyelids. There are other researchers that classify any mental activity that occurs during any stages of sleep as dreaming, and even some agrue that dreamlike mental processes during waking states, for example meditation should be included in this definition.
The author defines dreaming as a mental experience during sleep that can be described during waking consciousness. Andrea breaks down the book basically by the different theories.In 1900, Sigmund Freud's book entitled "The Interpretation of Dreams", he says that dreams spring from subconscious wishes (primarily sexual and aggressive desires, which he called it the libidinal drive) that the censoring ego normally suppressed in waking hours. Then there was Eugene Aserinsky that had basically discovered the rapid eye movement.Since that was discovered, that made William Dement interrested in the sleep research.He was beginning to look more into REM and other stages of sleep.
William Dement found that healthy adults pass through five standard stages of sleep.The five stages are as followed: Presleep period, Stage I sleep, Stage II sleep, slow-wave sleep, and REM sleep.Experiments done by Dement and Aserinsky showed that dreams were more likely to be remembered when awaked from REM. Then comes J.
Allan Hobson and Robert McCarley that's against Freud's theory of dreams.They believed that REM is turned on when brainstem neurons flipped a switch that altered the brain's balance of neuronmodulators that was in charge of activating and deactivating whole sections of the brain. Mark Solms on the other hand was all for Freud's theory.He believed that dreams were created in a more complex way than Hobson and McCarley theory.Solms was able to go around the neurosurgery department at a hospital he was working in at the time and study every patient who had any type of brain damage if it was caused by stroke, tumors, or traumatic injuries.He asked these patients how did this injury affect their ability to dream.A lot of them claimed that they lost dreaming altogether.What Solms discovered that most of the ones that said they lost dreaming altogether had damage done to the parietal lobe, which is the portion.